A precursor of the English game of HazardMraps was first played here in America as a street game among the shooter, one or more players betting on the shooter, and one or more players fading their action* As the game grew in popularity and worked its way into the gambling houses, operators introduced a one-way version where you could only bet the dice to win* Over a hundred years ago, a dicemaker by the name of John Winn was the first to bank the game, and allow players to bet either side, win or lose, and take a cut from both sides. This innovation, perhaps the most important development in the early game, proved to be the seed for casino craps. The early casino version was typically spread on a one-man dice tub. The ace-deuce was barred on the don't pass, and a variety of unusual proposKons were occasionally offered* Examples include: ’favorites’ (a one-roll bet on 2-4-6-8-10-12), 'over eight and under six’ (each paying two to one), and ’doubles' (a one-roll bet on the hard 4, 6, 8, and 10). Today, the core structure of the game remains unchanged* Minor variations can be seen in the peripheral bets, and handling of certain bets* Depending on the club, the player can now take double, triple, 5x, 10)Hand, occasionally, even lOOx odds! Some jurisdictions have eliminated the big 6 & 8* The ’put bet’ (a pass line bet, with odds, made after the point has been established) has been recently revived. In many clubs, the commission on buy bets is collected only after you hit your first bet. It's also common to see “No Call Bets" plainly printed on the layout* Sometimes the rule is enforced, sometimes call bets are merely tolerated, and sometimes they are simply accepted as an integral part of the game. Esthetically, some change is apparent. Modern dice and layouts are now available colors. You may even see the occasional electronic display board sitting in front of the boxman to indicate the number of passes made (^Hjn of the times), or other new propositon bets. History indicates that the game is relatively safe aside from the occasional^^^Br (dice slider), past p^Ser, and proposition^^™.-. The classic scams involving crooked dice have all but faded away, and are rare. Since player skill docs not appear to be a factor, and I refer to the controversy surrounding 'dice setters', the game doesn’t lend itself From a game protection standpoint, there are certain facets of the game that can mal<^| challenging to watch from surveillance. First, in many existing systems, from a single, wide-angle overhead camera, it can be difficult to read the dice. Second, it can be difficult to read bets due to a lack of depth perception, and a jam-up crap game is essentially one large table loaded u^^Hick^^^^^^Hixty tt^featy individual bets are not uncommon). Third, perhaps the difficulty of interpreting call bets, or any bets booked by verbal confirmation! I have always contended that if you can’t hear what is being said on a dice table, you can’^^^^^^^H With these observations in mind, p^^^Bon’t sections on itfdbked dice and switches. Chances are you will never run into cheaters^^^^^^^^H9l£witgE|^^^^^^^^^^^H or later, you will run into some player bettin^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hr. If you know ^Iay is not, then there can never be any reason to sweat the money, never any reason to doubt the actii^BThe same holds true for many other scamS* Look past the familiarize yourseli with many of the most successful scams in the histoi^Bf the gam* This is a big step toward developing confidence in your ability to supervise and just doing time, and b^^^Mssutn^fl^H the game will take care of itself. Also, your knowledge and understanding c^^^^^Bossible can go a long way to presenting the game in a manner that reassures your customers that game integrity is paramount. DICE Modern casino dice are made frc^« cellulose acetate (formally material that provides excellent clarity, hardness, and dimensional stability. Although there arc numerous options regarding the tffiir, finish, edge, and spotting, the industry staple is the 3/4" sized die, razor-edged with flush spots, i^Ether a sand or polish fiftiA- The manufacturing process for casino dice varies li£ccSt*frS>m one company to another. Star%® with the raw material (sheets, rods, or £«&£$), a diamond cutter assembly is used to cut and reduce an oversized cube to about larger than the end product. Spots ar#l}$lkdi to abcBt017 in depth and filled with an epoxy paint. The die is then scalped, cul^diujto about .002" larger than the end product. Monograms (the casino logo and serial number) are now added with a hot stamping machine, followed by another scalping, or lapping process, to smooth out the logo. Finally, a very fine polishing compound creates the transparent or polish finish, granite powder or similar used to create a dull or sand finish. The dice are 'miked' with a micrometer, wrapped, and are ready to go. At one time, the small^^^^Hzes of 5/,8" and 11/16" were commonplace, concave spotting was occasionally used, and the turned edge (also called a feathered edge), ring spot, and the very pretty birds eye spot were popular options. j^Harly dice a simple lettering of the casino name or initials on one side was the norm, since this service was offered free of charge by the manufacturers. Intricate custom logos with special fonts, multiple colors, and reflective surfaces were to follow. One or more sides of the dices may be protected with $Otne combination of casino name, LvatyftCand serial number. At a minimum, you will find tfiHasino name or serial number on one At a maximum, you willHil a casino logoH the deuce, jurisdictional logo around the ace, and a serial number on the si^^^^fditional protection, one may opt for a letter key (stamped under the spot), or glow-spot (only seen^^^^ftraviokt light). Traditionally, prior to the shift, the pit manager will often mark the identification consisting of a small r punch. Even hidden marks have been employed in ths past, but are little known today. One boss used to order his^Se with the ace spot drilled one siz^^^^Hfo a casual onlooker it went unnoticed, but he could walk up to the the game arHnStantly identify the oversized spot. Other clubs have altered |htir logos with hidden keys. For example, aHre time tl^fcacsars Palace logo was modified: the L in the word split horizontally a^^Hhe middle. This was done intentionally, and, like the oversized spot, it provided a small layer of protection against any cheater looking to duplicate the logo on his gaffed dice, Precision Dice? manufacturer advertises their dice to be perfect cubes to within 1/10,000 of an inch. You’ll often see this precision expressed along the lines of "equal to l/20th the thickness of a single human hair”.f|wo questjjpm come up all the time in this regard. How accurate are these tolerances? And, arjsnjanufacturing tolerances regulated by law? As it turns out, not many casino dice mike to witdwl 1/uMBHF^X)005TJ. This is an exaggerated precision that turns out to be more of a sales pitch than a reality. A discrepancy of a few ten-thousandths can often be seen when miking the same die on the sixJfeijKJksat different positions, such as the center versus slightly offcenter. A more accurate description may be said to be tolerances to within 2/10,000" to 5/10,000". Any precision dial micrometer with tolerances in 1/10,000" will prove these claims. If you want to see how temperamental this kinjjl of precision can be, take a new die out of the wrapper, mike it, and then hold it tightly in your clo»Ad hand fo^^^^^^Bute. NdW mike it again. It’s likely that you will see a discrepancy of heat created by^^^^^^Hill cause the die to expand. With a dial micrometer, w&Jtch what happens1 next. It may take a few minutes, but the die will eventually contract back to its original In 1994,1 received a letter from a gentleman that I think you might find inee^^^L It pe&d as follows: Dear Steve: I bought a set of your protection video* have very much. However, I wanted to point out an error number 4. Wherein it was ice were to be within 1/10,000. I had occasion some years ago to be in^^^^^mrfgn uncanceled die oydfi ABC Casino cra^Bble. Because I was skeptical of the way examined by three ettpcrts. To make a very long story W, which I was told wastaaaktt affect the outcome of a game. It the die was intentionally manufactured^^^^M specif cations. The enclosed when I tried to get Commission to enforce a fair crap game. Sincerely, Mr.NL The office of the Attorney General, Gaming Division, responded: Dear Mr. L, As you may now know, there are no technical standards pf&ently adopted Gaming Commission regulation defining the exact dimm^Ato which a die must conform. Tb&vfprc, there is no basis for the Board or its agents to take particular legal action inhere the allegation oj^^^^^&iice in play is predicated on an inspection by an independent testing lab selected by you which found an alleged discrepancy of 30/10,000 off. As to the specific die in your possession there would i’^B way for Board agents to prove the chain of custody and control even if the variance would be sufficient according to the tests they do make to determine ifitjjs square... I assure you that the public has every reason to be confident that gaming ht Lat Vegas (aid all of Nevada) is conducted honestly ... The letter was signed by the Attorney General and the Deputy Attorney General, Gaming I Division.